Saturday, September 26, 2015

PASSIVE VOICE

  • A sentence which  starts with an object ( receiver / affected agent of the action ) is called Passive Voice.( P.V.) 
  • Passive Voice is used to focus the object in the sentence and what happened to Object. But the meaning & Tense are not changed while we convert a sentence from A.V. to P.V.
  • Some times Subject (doer of action ) is omitted in P.V. if it is well known, obvious or unimportant.                        Ex: He was admitted in the hospital.  The results have been declared.
  • The Subject of the A.V. becomes Object ( grammatically) of the P.V.and the Object of the A.V becomes Subject ( grammatically) of the P.V. 
  • Passive Voice is possible only with Transitive Verbs ( Verb that accepts an object)
  • We can't form Passive voice with Intransitive verbs like  'go', 'sleep'..etc.
  • The Verb Form in Passive Voice is / ends with    ...../+ 'Be' form + V3
  • 'Be' form + 'ing' form = Active Voice (A.V.) . Ex: I am writing a story /  We were watching a film.
  • 'Have' form + V3 = Active Voice . Ex: I have written a story./ They had arranged a meeting.
  •  'Be' form + V3 = Passive Voice. Ex: A story has been written by me./ A story was written by me. 
  • The selection of 'Be' form is the key to make a correct Passive Voice. It depends on i) the tense of the given situation   ii) the number & person of the new subject in P.V. (originally object in the A.V)
  • P.V. is  possible only in 8 places among all 12 aspects of the Tenses and usually we use preposition 'by' in P.V.
  •  Incomplete P.V. forms are commonly used in the news paper/T.V. head lines and on sign boards. Ex : Ten people killed in a road accident./ Milk sold here./  Exhibition opened  grandly. (Add relevant 'Be' form before V3 to get complete form of P.V. for such headlines)
Let us know how to form  PASSIVE VOICE ( P.V.) with the help of the table given under:

                                                                                          PASSIVE VOICE
 (Verb Form :  ……. ‘Be’ form + V3)


             SIMPLE

          CONTINUOUS
                 
                    PERFECT
PERFECT CONTINUOUS


PRESENT

English is spoken by me/us/you/him/them
Verb Form : am/is/are+ V3

English is being spoken by me/us/you/him/them
VF : am/is/are+ being+V3

English has been spoken by me/us/you/him/them
VF : has/have + been+ V3
          

No Passive Voice


PAST

English was spoken by me/us/you/him/them
VF : was/were+ V3

English was being spoken by me/us/you/him/them
V F: was/were+ being+ V3

English had been spoken by me/us/you/him/them
VF : had+ been+ V3
          

No Passive Voice

FUTURE
English will be spoken by me/us/you/him/them
VF : shall/will+ be+ V3

                       No Passive Voice
English will have been spoken by me/us/you/ him / them
VF :shall/will+have+been+V3
          
No Passive Voice

Tuesday, September 22, 2015

TENSES


Let's know  'WHEN'  ( context / situation) to use the four aspects of Present Tense. If we understand the contextual usage of all Present Tenses thoroughly, it becomes easy to use all aspects of  Past and Future Tenses at right situations. The most possible situations of each Present Tense are here under : 







Monday, September 21, 2015

TENSES

                                           
                                                                                        TENSES

  • The following TENSES chart gives you a clear idea of the English Tenses & how to use the right Verb Form suitable to Time and Aspect.
  • We can't equate the Tenses of  English to any other language. 
  • Tenses are primarily  Three : Present, Past & Future . 
  • Each Tense has four aspects: Simple, Continuous, Perfect & Perfect Continuous.  
  • So, we can make 12 types of  VERB FORMS in Active Voice i.e. starting the sentence with a Subject ( Agent or Doer of Action)
  • The selection of the  verb form depends on two things in the sentence. (i) Time ( Present/past/future)   (ii) Subject ( Person&singular/plural )
  • Verb Form ( VF) is either a single word of the verb or the combination of a helping verb + a main verb
  • Be- forms : am, is, was, are, were, be, been, being
  • Have- forms : has, have, had
  • Do- forms : does, do, did,  done
  • Main Verb forms:  Take ( V1 or Present Tense or Base form) , Takes ( S-form or Present singular), Took ( V2 or Past Tense),   Taken ( V3 or Past Participle), Taking ( ing-form or Present Participle)
  • There is no main verb form to indicate Future tense. Shall / Will + main verb gives Future Tense.
  • This chart tells you HOW ( form) to use the Verb only, further you need to learn WHEN ( context) to use a particular form. For continuation please follow the blog....



                                                      TENSES    (  ACTIVE VOICE )
                                     Aspect....>

 Time 

      SIMPLE
          CONTINUOUS
( .... ‘be’ form+ing)
                               PERFECT
      ( … ‘have’form +V3)
PERFECT CONTINUOUS
(…. ‘have’form+ been+ ing)


PRESENT
I/We/You/They speak English.
He/She/ speaks English.
Verb Form : V1 / ‘s’
I am speaking English.
We/You/They are speaking English.
He/She/It is speaking English.
VF : am/is/are+ ing
I/We/You/They have spoken English.
He/She/It has spoken English.
VF : has/have + V3
   I/We/You/They have been speaking English.
He/She/It has been speaking English.
VF : has/have+been+ing       



PAST
I/We/You/They/ He/She/  spoke English.
Verb Form : V2
I/He/She/It was speaking English.
We/You/They were speaking English.
VF : was/were+ ing
I/We/You/They /He/She/It had spoken English.
VF : had + V3
 I/We/You/They/ He/She/It had been speaking English
VF : had+been+ing       

FUTURE
I/We shall speak English.
You/They He/She will speak English.
VF: shall/will+V1
  I/We shall be speaking English.
You/They He/She will be speaking English.
VF: shall/will+be+ ing            
I/We shall have spoken English.
You/They/ He/She will have spoken English.
VF: shall/will+have+V3
I/We shall have been speaking English.
You/They He/She will have been speaking English.
VF: shall/will+have+been+ing











Friday, September 18, 2015

               Adverb
           We know that 'Parts of Speech' is classification of  all the words  into eight groups based on their nature and function in the sentence : Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Adjective, Preposition, Conjunction & Interjection .
 Adverb is a word which is often misunderstood and wrongly used. Here is a simple note on Adverb with illustrious examples.

An adverb is a word that tells us more about a verb. It "qualifies" or "modifies" a verb (The man ran quickly). In the following examples, the adverb is in bold and the verb that it modifies is in italics.
  • John speaks loudly. (How does John speak?)
  • Afterwards she smoked a cigarette. (When did she smoke?)
  • Mary lives locally. (Where does Mary live?)
But adverbs can also modify adjectives   (Tara is really beautiful), or even other adverbs (It works very well).
Look at these examples:
  • Modify an adjective:
    - He is
     really handsome. (How handsome is he?)
    - That was
     extremely kind of you.
  • Modify another adverb:
    - She drives
     incredibly slowly. (How slowly does she drive?)
    - He drives
     extremely fast.


We make many adverbs by adding -ly to an adjective, for example:
  • quick (adjective) > quickly (adverb)
  • careful (adjective) > carefully (adverb)
  • beautiful (adjective) > beautifully (adverb)
There are some basic rules about spelling for -ly adverbs. See the table
 below:
Adjective ending
do this
adjective
adverb
most adjectives
add -ly
quick
nice
sole
careful
quickly
nicely
solely
carefully
-able or -ible
change -e to -y
regrettable
horrible
regrettably
horribly
-y
change -y to -ily
happy
happily
-ic
change -ic to -ically
economic
economically

But not all words that end in -ly are adverbs. The words friendlylovelylonely
 and neighbourly,for example, are all adjectives.

And some adverbs have no particular form. Look at these examples:
  • well, fast, very, never, always, often, still
Adverbs have other functions, too. They can:

  • Modify a whole sentence: Obviously, I can't know everything.
  • Modify a prepositional phrase: It's immediately inside the door.
 




Tuesday, September 15, 2015



  TEN TIPS TO IMPROVE  INTERPERSONAL SKILLS


 1. Practice Smiling Often. No one wants to be around someone who is always frowning. Maintain a positive, cheerful attitude about work and life.
 
2. Pay Attention to People. Make eye contact and address people by their first names. Ask them for their opinions and suggestions.
 
3. Be Generous with Praise and Words of Encouragement. If you let others know that they are appreciated, they will want to give you their best.
 
4. Keep Your Promises. If you promise something to someone, follow up on it.
 
5. Treat Everyone Fairly. Do not play favorites and avoid talking about others behind their backs.
 
6. Pay Close Attention to Your Body Language. This and the tone of your voice have a lot to do with how people feel about you. Think before you speak!
 
7. Make other's Laugh. Most people are drawn to a person who can make them feel better.
 
8. Try to See Things from Another Person's View. Empathy is about being able to put yourself in someone else's shoes and understanding how they feel.
 
9. Keep an Open Mind. Remember there is always room for discussion and compromise.
 
10. Don't Complain. There is nothing worse than a chronic whiner. Try to focus on helping other people solve their problems and it will be remembered.
  


Sunday, September 13, 2015

'Regular verbs'  have same 'ed' suffix in the  Past Tense(V2)&Past Participle(V3) forms . 
Ex:  Play-Played-Played
'Irregular verbs' take different forms in V2 and V3.    Ex: Take-Took-Taken 

Here are two slides of irregular verbs:



Saturday, September 12, 2015

Some Tips To Make It Happen

* To solve a problem or to reach your goal, you don't need to know all the answers in advance.
 
• But you must have a clear idea of the problem or the goal you want to reach.
 
• All you have to do is know where you're going.
 
• The answers will come to you of their own accord.
 
• Don't procrastinate when faced with a big difficult problem, break the problem into parts, and handle one part at a time. Remember, the Impossible can always be broken down in to possibilities.
 
• If you can get up the courage to begin, you have the courage to succeed.
 
• It's the job you never start that takes the longest to finish.
 
• Don't worry about what lies dimly at a distance, but do what lies clearly ahead.
 
• Your biggest opportunity is where you are right now.
 
When you begin you are half done.

                                                   GOOD LUCK 

   1.  Today's Quote : 




2.  Stairs To climb UP and climb DOWN



Friday, September 11, 2015

Here are the beautiful examples to learn ADVERBS of  TIME  ( FREQUENCY ). 




Thursday, September 10, 2015


Prepositioons are very tricky. They dont have thumb rules except  usage. They are not connecting words but tell relation. Usually they are used before a noun or its equivalent. Same preposition may give different sense depending on the other words and the context. Find here the slides of  1. Three kinds of prepositions that denote Place, Time and Direction. 2. Adjectives+ prepositions.( Certain adjectives always take the same prepositions)
1.



2.  
Add caption
                                                                         

Wednesday, September 9, 2015


Mansoons bring rain , but the season plays hide and seek with us, some times it's heavy rain and some times light..Let's look at the vocabulary, idioms connected to different kinds of rain.


Tuesday, September 8, 2015



Man is a bundle of feelings and emotions. We express different kinds of  feelings and share with our near, dear and strangers too. Even our gestures convey our feelings, but are often misunderstood . English Language is rich in vocabulary and there is no dearth of words in any jargon . Express your feelings with right word with its apt intensity. Here is the list of five major human feelings and their intensity.Grade your feelings please, it means a lot....

           Transformation through Education – Swami Chinmayananda

As the thoughts, so the man, be he an engineer, a lawyer, a doctor, a politician or even an erudite scholar. To change the texture of one’s thoughts is to transform the personality.
Hammering in some data and information adds up only to instruction, and not education. These bits of knowledge may be useful to understand the world better and to earn a livelihood, but they do not, and cannot add to the quality and stature of the individual’s inner personality. A change in the quality of thoughts changes the very nature of the uneducated and therefore wild person, to a soft, humane and decent personality with a balanced head and heart.
The beauty or ugliness of thoughts depends upon the values of life the individual has accepted and is maintaining in his intimate personal understanding. Unless we destroy the unhealthy values and come to successfully replace them with healthier values of life, the metamorphosis of an ugly, incompetent and hateful man into a beautiful, efficient and loving citizen can never be accomplished. This is the heart of education: inculcating healthy values of love and spirit of self-sacrifice for the sake of others.
Values are very subtle to grasp and apprehend, and very volatile even when one has grasped them and their blessings. These healthy values can be assimilated by the growing children only when they ride upon a hero whom they come to recognise and respect.

Here  are three useful words, Don't get confused, 'learn and practise








                  Quote of the Day :